Friday, 9 December 2011

The Feminist Movement and The Muslim Woman


Maryam Jameelah

The most radical
movement in recent times which is revolutionizing thc whole social
structure and chang­ing the entire basis of human relationships
is the Feminist movement, popularly known as the drive for Women’s

The Feminist
movement is not a unique product of the modern age. Its historical
precedents reach back into antiquity. In his Republic, Plato advocated
the abolition of the family and social roles determined by sex;
in literature, the ancient Greek classical comedy, Lypsistrata and
much marc recently, Henrick Ibsen’s (1828-1906) drama, A Doll’s
House preached feminist ideals. The Victorian economist and philosopher,
John Stuart Mill and the German socialist, Friedrich Engels in his
essay, The Subjection of Women, which he wrote in 1869, laid the
core foundations of Feminism. In 1884 Angels publicly proclaimed
marriage as a “dreary mutation of slavery,” urged its
abolition and suggested public responsibility for the rearing of

In America,
Feminism was the outgrowth of the movement for the abolition of
slavery and the Temperance movement for the legal banning of liquor.
Women who joined these organizations soon discovered that to make
their cause effective, they required political power. The historical
milestone of the Feminist movement was the Seneca Falls Convention
in 1948 which in its manifesto, demanded women’s rights to
her complete control over her property and the he right to divorce
her husband, guardianship of the children and an end to sexual discrimination
in­ employment along with the right to receive equal pay with
men for the same work, and most important, female franchise. As
the campaign for women’s suffrage grew, the more conservative
Feminists limited their cause to the single issue of suffrage. In
1920 with the passage of the 19th amendment to the American constitution
giving women the vote, the majority of women activists as ‘well,
as the public assumed that with female franchise, women’s rights
had been fully obtained. After this, the Feminist movement lay dormant
for more then than forty years.

On December
14, 1961, President John F. Kennedy signed an Executive order establishing
the President’s Commission on the status of women. Its mandate
was “to examine and recommend remedies to combat the prejudices
and obsolete customs and morals which act as obstacles to the complete
realization of women’s rights.” The President’s Commission
was the first official body ever to examine the status of in the
United States.

Thus the “silent
fifties” came to an abrupt end with the beginnings of Feminist
confrontation politics in the early 1960’s – marches,
pickets and sit-ins. College and university girls began to participate
in these political activities.

In contrast
to the women who assembled at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848
and merely protested against the ill-treatment and abuse of women
by drunken husbands and achievement of their legitimate rights in
marriage, control of property and earnings and equal pay with men
for the same work, the demands of the modern successors are far
more radical. In the largest most enthusiastic Feminist demonstration
ever held, on August 26, 1970, hundreds of women marched down Fifth
Avenue, New York City carrying placards which read:


Feminists are implacably opposed to any social roles being determined
by sex. Feminists assert the absolute and unqualified equality of
men and women, not withstanding anatomical differences. They deny
that there is any inherent biological distinction between men and
women on the basis of sex which determines that the wife should
be the housewife and mother and the husband the breadwinner and
authoritarian head of the family. They believe that women should
take just as active role in sexual intercourse as men and not be
passive. They demand the abolition of institutional marriage, home
and family, asset complete female sexual freedom and that the upbringing
should be a public responsibility. They insist that all women should
be given the right to complete control over their reproductive lives.
They are demanding that all restrictions must be lifted from laws
governing contraception so that devices can be publicly advertised
and available over the druggist counter to any women regardless
of her age and marital status and purchasable without a doctor’s
prescription. All laws restricting abortion should be removed and
that women have a legal right to abortion at any stage of pregnancy.
Abortions should not only be available at demand but should be supplied
free by the state to any women who wants one so that the poor can
take full advantage of facility.

In schools all
course must be equally co-educational – home economics must
no be exclusively female and shop mechanics for boys. Segregation
must be broken down in gymnasiums and physical education. Girls
should be allowed to compete in all sports and physical exercises
with boys at all ages. All mass-media must be radically changed
to eliminate sex-stereotyping roles and portray women as equal to
men in all fields of work and production. Children’s books
are criticized by feminists because they do not show in their stories
more single-parent families, unmarried mothers and divorces women
as models for the children. Girls should be given mechanical toys
to play with and boys should be given dolls. Instead of traditional
institutions of marriage, home and family, radical Feminists propose
men and women living in large communes where the welfare and rearing
of the children would be public responsibility. They are demanding
that child-care centers are made available to parents on a 24-hour
basis provided to the public as free on demand just as parks, libraries
and recreational facilities are taken for granted in most American
communities. Women must be financially independent and no profession
or occupation should be banned to her on account of her sex.

A lot of women
who may say that they just want to play the traditional roles are
simply fearful - or unable to imagine other ways of being. Old roles
can seem to offer a certain security. Freedom can seem frightening
especially if one has learned how to achieve a certain degree of
power inside prison. Perhaps they are just afraid of choices. We
don’t seek to impose any­thing on women but merely to open
up all possible alter­natives. We do seek choice as one of the
functions, which makes people human beings. We want to be full people,
crippled neither by law or custom or our own-chained minds. If there
us no room in that in nature, then nature must be changed!1

One of the “alternative
choices” for women the Feminists seek to make socially acceptable
is Lesbianism (female homosexuality). One of the branches of feminism
is the homophile organization known as The Daughters of Bilitis
the aim of which is to promote Lesbianism.

The women’s
liberation movement has members who were lesbians before its existence
and those who have become lesbians since their involvement with
the movement. For some of the latter, Lesbianism is a form of political
protest. Say the radical feminists. “Lesbianism is one road
to freedom - freedom from oppression by men.”2

The Lesbian
minority in America, which may run as high at ten million women,
is a woman, who is drawn erotically to women rather than to men.
Perhaps the most logical and least hysterical of all statements
about homosexuality is the following by Dr. Joel Fort psychiatrist
and public health specialist and Dr. Joe K. Adams, psychologist
and former mental health officer. The statement made in August 1966
is as follows: “Homosexuals like heterosexuals should be treated
as individual human beings and not as a special group either by
law or social agencies or employers. Laws governing sexual behavior
should be reformed to deal only with clearly anti-social behavior
involving violence or youth. The sexual behavior of individual adults
by mutual Consent in private should not be a matter of public concern.3

What is the
end-result of the radical feminist movement? What kind of society
does Women’s Liberation seek to attain?

Thus women for
men are alternatively angels and slaves to be worshipped one minute
and spurned and exploited the next but seldom treated as equals.
Concerning sex, our society has taught total abstinence for the
first decade of sexual maturity (even masturbation is considered
at best an unavoidable evil,) then life-long fidelity to one partner.
All the while society does its best both to keep us ignorant and
confused about what a well developed sex-life can be and to convince
us that the forbidden fruits of promiscuity surpass anything the
“moral’ person can ever taste. What a bundle of paradoxes!
If instead we could face without flinching our homosexual impulses
and curiosity about how this or that act with such a person might
feel, then we might be able to distinguish between an impulse which
is immoral and involuntary and action which of course must be taken
deliberately in accordance with its likely consequences and our
overall values and goals. What would happen if men rejected the
male stereotype and acknowledged the values of oneness, humility,
discussion, consideration, cooperation and compromise along with
humility, respectful disagreement and conflict. We would not deny
the richness of our sexual imagination nor the natural sexual element
in all relationships. Just how it occurs-talking, touching, dancing
or making love should be our guilt-free choice based on our own
honest needs rather than a “moral” “masculine”

What about the
question of “fidelity” to one partner versus a diverse
sex-life? Most adults seem to need to have a primary relationship,
which comes before all others. If a problem in the primary relationship,
which is the most demanding but also the most potentially rewarding
kind, makes us try to escape through an outside flirtation or “affair,”
this is bad not because of the sexual acts committed but because
it is an escape. The problem remains unsolved.

All our relationships
tend to be over-reserved. We need to loosen up and learn to express
affection-openly and physically. Would men’s and women’s
liberation of the sort I have just described destroy the traditional
American family? I think so. It is an institution with many drawbacks.
Considerations of efficiency and economy and exposure to the difficulties
and opportunities inherent in larger groups living and working together
make it a good idea to experiment with some “communal”
kinds of arrangement.4

In Muslim countries,
fortunately, the Feminist movement has not yet touched such extremes
as this but as a result of westernization, Purdah is rapidly disappearing
and women, revolting against their tradi­tional roles, are patterning
their lives more and more am the models of their Western sisters.

In the more
fashionable and well-to-do urban classes, par­ticularly in Tehran,
the women spend less time in household work and more in social,
professional, recreational and philan­thropic activities. To
go to the dress-maker or the hair-dresser, to have morning coffee
or lunch with friends, to shop and attend parties, these constitute
the daily routine for such women. They also enjoy taking meals in
fine restaurants, going on holidays and engaging in sports. An increasing
number of women of this class take an interest in cultural and charitable
work. (p. 77)

In the cities
of Lebanon, women are increasingly seen outside the home. On Sundays
there are as many women as men on the crowded beaches of Beirut
- the younger generation, of course. Beach behavior undoubtedly
is a symbol of the loosening of bonds. In Lebanon the acceptance
of Western dress styles has reached a stage where among the westernized
middle and upper classes, there is little restraint even on those
girls who wish to dress provocatively. In all social groups girls
display a tremendous preoccupation with clothes and they are not
usually casual clothes except for beach wear or picnics. In the
winter suits are worn but in summer the standard garb for the university
girl is a tight silk dress or skirt and a more or less transparent
blouse. High heels and nylon stockings are standard and make-up
is elaborate. Some Muslim girls (not university students) wear a
completely transparent symbolic veil over their faces. A few years
ago, girls were shy about being seen on the beaches with bathing
suits, especially in a bikini. Now they take it in their stride
and many wear scanty two-piece bathing suits. (pp. 122-123)5

Feminism is
an unnatural, artificial and abnormal product of contemporary social
disintegration, which in turn is the inevitable result of the rejection
of all trans­cendental, absolute moral and spiritual values.
The student of anthropology and history can be certain of the abnormality
of the Feminist movement because all human cultures that we know
of throughout prehistorically and historic times make a definite
clear-cut distinction between “masculinity” and “femininity”
and pattern the social roles of men and women accordingly. The disintegration
of the home and family, the loss of the authoritarian role of the
father and sexual promiscuity have been directly responsible for
the decline and fall of every nation which these evils become prevalent.

Some may argue
that if this is so, why is Western civilization so extraordinarily
vigorous and dynamic and despite its decadence and moral corruption,
still unchallenged in its world-domination?

When moral depravity,
self-worship and sensual indulgence have touched extremes; when
men and women, young and old have become lost in sexual craze; when
men have been completely perverted by sexual excitements, the natural
consequences leading a nation to total collapse will inevitably
follow. People who witness the progress and prosperity of such declining
nations, which indeed stand on the very brink of an abyss of fire,
are led to conclude that their self-indulgence is not imped­ing
their progress but accelerating it. They think that a nation is
at the peak of its prosperity when its people are highly self-indulgent.
But this is a sad conclusion. When the constructive and destructive
forces are both working side by side and the constructive aspect
on the whole seems to have an edge over the destructive aspect,
it is wrong to count the latter among the factors leading to the

Take, for instance,
the case of a clever merchant who is earning high profits by dint
of his intelligence, hard-work and experience. But at the same time,
if he is given to drink, gambling and leads a care-free life, will
it not be misleading to regard that side of his life as contributing
to his well-being and prosperity? As a matter of fact, the first
set of qualities is helping him to prosper whereas the second set
is pulling him down. If on account of the positive qualities, he
is flourishing, it does not mean that the negative forces are ineffective.
It may be that the devil of gambling brings his whole fortune to
naught in a moment and it may be that the devil of drinking leads
him to commit a fatal mistake rendering him bankrupt and it may
be that the devil of sexual indul­gence leads him to commit
murder, suicide or some other calamity. One cannot imagine how prosperous
and triumphant he would have been had he not fallen a prey to these

Similarly is
the case with a nation. In the beginning it receives an impetus
from constructive forces but then, due to lack of proper guidance,
it begins to gather round it the means of its own destruction. For
a while the constructive forces drag it along under the momentum
already gained. But the destructive forces that are working simultaneously
weaken it so much that one stray shock can send it sprawling to
its doom.6

Where can salvation
for humanity be found?

From the point
of view of social structure, the teachings of the Shariah emphasize
the role of the family as the unit of society - the family in the
extend­ed sense and not in its atomized, nuclear modem form.
The greatest social achievement of the Prophet in Medina was precisely
in breaking the existing tribal bonds and substituting religious
ones which were connected on the one hand with the totality of the
Muslim community and on the other hand with the family. The Muslim
family is the miniature of the whole of Muslim society and its firm
basis. In it, the man or father functions as the Imam in accordance
with the patriarchal nature of Islam. The religious responsi­bility
of the family rests upon his shoulders. In the family, the father
upholds the tenets of the faith and his authority symbolizes that
of God in the world. The man is in fact respected in the family
precisely because of the sacerdotal function that he fulfils. The
rebellion of Muslim women in certain quarters of Islamic society
came when men themselves ceased to fulfil their religious function
and lost their virile and patriarchal character. By becoming themselves
effemi­nate, they caused the reaction of revolt among certain
women who no longer felt the authority of religion upon themselves.

The traditional
family is also the unit of stability of society and the four wives
that a Muslim can marry, like the four-sided Ka’aba, symbolize
this stability. Many have not understood why such a family structure
is permitted in Islam and attack Islam for it as if polygamy belongs
to Islam alone. Here and again Muslim modernism carries with it
the pre­judice of Christianity against polygamy to the extent
that some have gone even so far as to call it immoral and prefer
promiscuity to a social pattern which minimizes all illicit relations
to the extent possible. The problem of the attitude of the Western
observer is not as important as that segment of modernized Muslim
society which itself cannot understand the teachings of the Shariah
on this point simply because it uses as criteria categories borrowed
from the modern West.

There is no
doubt that in a small but significant segment of Muslim society
today, there is a revolt of women against traditional Islamic society.
In every civilisation a reaction always comes against an existing
force or action. In Islam, the very patriarchal and masculine nature
of the tradition makes the revolt of those women who have become
aggressively modernised more violent and virulent than, let us say,
in Hinduism, where the maternal element has always been strong.
What many modernised Muslim women are doing in rebelling against
the traditional Muslim family structure is to rebel against fourteen
centuries of Islam itself although many may not be aware of the
inner forces that drive them on. It is the patriarchal nature of
Islam that makes the reaction of some modernised women today so
vehement. Although very limited in number, they are, in fact, more
than Muslim men, thirsting for all things Western. They seek to
become modernised in their dress and habits with impetuosity, which
would be difficult to understand unless one considers the deep psycho­logical
factors involved.

From the Islamic
point of view, the question of the equality of men and women is
meaningless. It is like discussing the equality of a rose and a
jasmine. Each has its own perfume, colour, shape and beauty. Men
and women are not the same. Each has particular features and characteristics.
Women are not equal to men. But neither are men equal to women.
Islam envisages their roles in society not as competing but as complimentary.
Each has certain duties and functions in accordance with his or
her nature and constitution.

Man possesses
certain privileges such as social authority and mobility against
which he has to perform many heavy duties. First of all, he bears
all economic responsibility. It is his duty to support his family
completely even if his wife is rich and despite the fact that she
is economically independent. A woman in a traditional Islamic society
does not have to worry about earning a living. There is always a
family completely even if his wife is rich and despite die fact
that she is economically independent. A woman in traditional Islamic
society does not have to worry about earning a living. There is
always the larger family structure in which she can find a place
and take refuge from social and economic pressures even if she has
no husband or father. In the extended family system, a man often
supports not only his wife and children but also his mother, sister,
aunts, in-laws and sometimes even cousins and more distant relatives.
Therefore in city life, the necessity of having to find a job at
all costs and having to bear the economic pressure of life is lifted
from the shoulders of women. As for the countryside, the family
is itself the economic unit and the work is achieved by the larger
family or tribal unit together.

Secondly, a
woman does not have to find a husband for herself. Site does not
have to display her charms and make the thousand and one plans through
which she hopes to attract a future mate. The terrible anxiety of
having to find a husband and of missing the opportunity if one does
not try hard enough at the right moment is spared the Muslim woman.
Being able to remain true to her nature, she can afford to sit at
home and wait for her parents or guardian to choose a suitable match.
This usually leads to a marriage which, being based on the sense
of religious duty and enduring family and social bonds between the
two sides, is more lasting arid ends much more rarely in divorce
than the marriages which are based on the sentiments of the moment
that often do not develop into more permanent relationships.

Thirdly the
Muslim woman is spared direct military and political responsibility
although in rare cases there have been women warriors. This point
may appear as a deprivation to some but in the light of the real
needs of feminine nature, it is easy to see that for most women,
such duties weigh heavily upon them. Even in modern societies, which
through the equalitarian process have tried to equate men and women
as if there were no difference in the two sexes, Women are usually
spared the military draft except in extreme circumstances.

In return for
these privileges which the woman receives, she has also certain
responsibilities of which the most important is to provide a home
for her family and to bring up her children properly. In the home
the woman rules as queen and a Muslim man is in a sense the guest
of his wife at home. The home and the larger family structure in
which she lives are for the Muslim woman her world. To be cut off
from it would be like being cut off from the world or like dying.
She finds the meaning of her existence in this extended family structure
which is constructed so as to give her the maximum possibility of
realizing her basic needs and fulfilling herself.

The Shariah
therefore envisages the role of men and women according to their
nature, which is compli­mentary. It gives the man the privilege
of social and political authority and movement for which he has
to pay by bearing heavy responsibilities, by protecting his family
from all the forces and pressures of society, economic and otherwise.
Although a master in the world at large and the head of his own
family, the man acts in his home as one who recognize the rule of
his wife, in this domain and respects it. Through mutual under­standing
and the realization of the responsibilities that God has placed
on each other’s shoulders, the Muslim man and woman are able
to fulfil their personalities and create a firm family unit which
is the basic struc­ture of Muslim society.7

In the vehement
rejection of the cultural, moral and spiritual values, indispensable
for maintaining the institution of the family, those who support
the Women’s Liberation Movement are revolting against the whole
Christian heritage of their own civilization.

Despite the
evils of its feudalistic society and the abuses of the authority
of the priesthood, medieval Europe enjoyed a social integration,
stability, peace and harmony which is unknown to modern Europe.
Here is a vivid and moving description of Christian family values
practically implemented in medieval Europe as taken from the family
chronicles of the famous German artist, Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
who, although a devout Christian, presents a picture of his own
home life as very close to Islamic ideals.

Albrecht Durer,
my beloved father, came to Germany, and stayed for a long time in
the low countries, working with the great masters and finally came
here to Nuremberg in the year of Our Lord 1455 on St. Eligius’s
day. And on this same day (June 25th) there was the wedding of Philip
Pircheimer in the castle and a great reception under the big lime
tree. Thenceforth, for a long time, my beloved father, Albrecht
Durer served the old Hiercrnonymus Holper until the year of our
Lord 1467. Then he gave him his daughter Barbara, a handsome, virtuous
maid, fifteen years of age and they were married eight days before
St. Vitus (June 8).

This good mother
of mine bore and brought up eighteen children, often had the pestilence
and many other severe illnesses, endured great poverty, ridicule,
scorn, alarm, and misfortune, yet she never bore revenge. These
brothers and sisters of mine, my beloved father’s children,
are all dead, some died young, the rest when adult. Only we three
brothers are still living, so long as it may please God; namely,
I, Albrecht and my brother Andreas, likewise my brother Hans. the
third of that name out of my father’s children.

This said Albrecht
Durer, the eider, worked hard all his life and had nothing else
to live on but what he earned for him­self, his wife and his
children with his own hands. He also had all manner of grief, temptation
and adversity. And all who knew him praised him for he led an honourable
Christian life, was a patient and gentle man, peaceable towards
everyone and he was very thankful to God. He had little-use for
society and worldly pleasures; he was also a man of few words and
godfearing. My beloved father took great pains to teach his children
to honour the Lord. For his greatest wish was to bring up his children
well so that they would be pleasing in the sight of God and man.
Therefore he continually told us to love God and behave honourably
towards our fellow men.

And my father
was especially fond of me for he saw that I was eager to learn.
Therefore he sent me to school and when I had learnt to read and
write, he cook me away from school and taught me the goldsmith’s
craft. And when I had mastered this, I felt that [would rather be
a painter than a goldsmith. When I told my father this, he was not
pleased for he grieved at the loss of time I had spent as his apprentice.
But in the end, he let me have my way and in the year of our Lord
1486, on St. Andrew’s day (30th November) my father hound me
as apprentice to Michael Wolgemut to serve him for three years.
In that time God gave me diligence and I learnt well but I also
had to suffer much at the hands of his assistants.

And after I
had come home, Hans Frey negotiated with my father and gave me his
daughter, Agnes and with her gave me 200 forms and we were married
on Monday, July 7th before St. Margaret’s day in the year 1494.

Later it happened
that my father became ill with dysentery and no one could cure him.
And when he saw death approaching, he submitted to it calmly and
patiently and commended my mother to my care and bade us to follow
in the way of the Lord. He received the last sacraments and died
a Christian death, leaving my mother a sorrowing widow. He had always
praised her to me exceedingly as a most godly woman. Therefore I
resolved never to forsake her.

All my friends!
I ask you in God’s name when you read of my pious father’s
death to say a Paternoster and an Ave Maria for his soul and for
the sake of your souls too, that we may, by serving God succeed
in living a good life and dying a good death. For it is not possible
that one who has led a good life should die an evil death for God
is merciful.

Now you shall
know that in the year 5513, on a Tuesday before Rogation, my poor
mother -whom I had taken care of for nine years since she came to
live with me two years after my father died when she was quite penniless
- was taken so ill early in the morning that we had to break open
her door - for she was too weak to let us in and that that was the
only way we could get to her. We brought her downstairs and she
received both sacraments for everyone knew she was about to die.
She had never been well since my father died.

More than a
year from the said day on which she fell ill, in the year of our
Lord, May 17, 1514, two hours before dark, my pious mother, Barbara
Durer departed from this life with all the sacraments, absolved
from pain and sin by papal authority. Before she died, she gave
me her blessing and wished me divine peace with much good advice
to guard myself from Sm. And she was most afraid of death but she
said she was not afraid to meet God. And my mother’s death
grieved me more than I can say. May God have mercy on her soul !
It was always her greatest pleasure to speak of God and see that
we honoured Him. And it was her custom. to go regularly to church
and she always scolded me heavily when I did wrong. And she was
always anxious lest I or my brothers should sin. And whenever I
went out or came in, she would say, “God be with you !“
And she constantly gave us solemn warning and had continual concern
for our souls. And I cannot say enough about her good works and
the kindness she showed to everybody or of her good name.

And it was in
her sixty-third year when she died. And I buried her fittingly in
accordance with my means. May the Lord grant me that I too die a
Christian death and that I may join Him and His Heavenly Host, my
father, my mother and my friends and may Almighty God give us eternal
life! Amen. And in death she looked far sweeter than when she was
still alive.8

A uni-sexual
society be proposed be the feminists - that is, a society which
makes no cultural or social distinction between the sexes, a society
without mar­riage, home and family, where modesty, chastity
and motherhood are scorned, does not represent “progress”
or “liberation” but degradation at its worst. The result
is pure and unadulterated anarchy, confusion and chaos.

If so, why is
Feminism so popular?

The social order
founded on materialism is the oldest and most popular. No social
order is more satisfying, none so easy to evolve and so readily
acceptable to the majority of men in all climes and at all times.
It has such a deep attraction for the masses that its roots need
not go deep into the soil nor is it necessary to raise the level
of human intelligence or make any sacrifice for its sake. One requires
no altruism or endur­ance. One need only drift with the “times.”
History bears witness to the fact that no social order has so persistently
come to have its sway over humanity as it has done.9

Never has moral
corruption and social decadence menaced mankind on such a universal
scale as is the case now. The adoption of feminist ideals degrades
humans lower than the animals. For animals live by their instincts
and cannot do anything opposed to their nature. Among animals, homosexuality
is unknown. The male is only attracted to the female of its own
species. The male animal never goes with lust to another male or
a female to another female. Among animals, the maternal relationship
is completely severed as soon as the young are able to look after
themselves. In most species, the father takes no interest in its
offspring. There is no such thing as modesty, chastity, marriage
or filial ties among. beasts. These concepts are unique with human
beings. They are found in every culture at every stage of civilization
and history. The feminists wish to abolish the very characteristics,
which make man human and undermine the foundation of all his relationships
and social ties. The result will be suicide, not only of a single
nation as in the past, but of the entire human race.


1 The Rebirth
of Feminism, Judith Hole and Ellen Levine, The New York Tomies,
New York, 1971, pp. 228

2 Ibid, p.240.

3 The New Woman;
A Motive Anthology on Women’s Liberation, edited by Joanne
Cooke and Charlotte Bunch-Weeks, New York, 1970. pp. 79-81.

4 Ibid., p.122-125.

5 Women in the
Modern World, edited by Raphael Palai. The Free Press, New York

6 Purdah and
the Status of Woman in Islam, Sayyid Abul ‘Ala Maudooda, Islamic
Publications, Lahore, 1972, pp. 52-53.

7 Ideals and
Realities of Islam, Syed Hossein Nasr, George AIIen & Unwin,
London, 1966, pp. 110-113.

8 The Durer
House in Nuremberg: Extracts from Durer’s Family Chronicles
and Reminiscences, English translation by John M. Woolman, Nuremberg.
pp. 34-46.

9 Religion and
Civilization, Abul Hasan All Nadawi, Academy of Islamic Research
and 8 Publications, Lucknow, 1970, p

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